Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
OCT is a non-invasive scan that uses light beams to create a cross-sectional image of the retina. Through OCT, an ophthalmologist can see the distinct layers of the retina, providing information about retinal structures and pathology. Retinal thickness is also measured, aiding in diagnosis and monitoring of various retinal diseases.
Optical Coherence Tomography-Angiography (OCTA)
OCTA is a new non-invasive way to detect blood flow and reconstruct a three-dimensional view of blood vessels within the retina. OCTA allows an ophthalmologist to see retinal vasculature at different depths within the retina, which is important to diagnose and monitor various retinal diseases.
A specialized fundus camera is used to take digital color photos of the retina and optic nerve. Fundus photography allows an ophthalmologist to document retinal structures and pathology for future comparison.
OPTOS Panoramic Photos
The OPTOS California is a highly specialized panoramic fundus camera that allows an ophthalmologist to capture a 220° view of the retina in a single image. This ultra-widefield camera allows documentation and monitoring of retinal diseases and conditions affecting peripheral areas of the retina. OPTOS photography is often used in conjunction with Fluorescein Angiography to provide additional information.
Fluorescein Angiography (FA)
Fluorescein Angiography is an imaging technique that allows an ophthalmologist to look at blood circulation through the retina. During this test, fluorescein, a vegetable-based dye, is injected into a vein in the arm and a series of photographs are taken for 5 minutes. The series of photographs document the circulation of the dye throughout the veins and arteries in the retina. An FA can aid the ophthalmologist in diagnosing and documenting leakage, growth of new vessels, blockages, and other retinal conditions. Following an FA, urine will be yellow-orange for up to 3 days.
Fluorescein is relatively safe. As with any injected medication, there is a small risk of allergic reaction. Some patients may experience brief nausea. However, unlike dyes used in CT scans, fluorescein does not contain synthetic dye.
B-scan ultrasound is a non-invasive procedure which uses high-frequency sound waves to scan the eye and produce a two-dimensional image of ocular structures. Ultrasonography is useful when an ophthalmologist’s view of the retina is blocked due to cataracts, vitreous hemorrhage, or other conditions which block internal eye structures. Ultrasonography can help identify the extent of retinal detachments and is useful in monitoring chroidal nevi.